Thomas J. Clarke

Every nation honors the memory of Patriots whose personal sacrifices contributed to their freedom.  In our United States, George Washington looms up larger than life as the personification of the American Revolution, even though Samuel Adams was its architect and Nathan Hale was a martyr for its cause. In Ireland’s struggle for independence, the Easter Rising of 1916 is the landmark rising that led to today’s Republic of Ireland.  It is the Lexington and Concord of Irish history when a handful of hopefuls stood firm against the might of England for the principle of freedom.  Padraig Pearse led the men of Easter Week and is the personification of the Easter Rising in the minds of many, yet the architect of that rising, and a man who also gave his life in its cause was Thomas J. Clarke.

Thomas Clarke was born in 1858 and raised in County Tyrone where the landlord-dominated Irish population had been reduced to a condition bordering on serfdom.  In August 1878, young Tom joined the ranks of the Fenian Irish Republican Brotherhood (IRB), a secret revolutionary organization not unlike our own Sons of Liberty.  In 1881, his activities caused him to flee to New York where he became active in Clan na Gael, the American branch of the Fenian movement.  On a trip to England in 1883, he was captured and sentenced to life for Fenian activities.  Prison existence was so severe for Fenian prisoners that two men sentenced with him went insane under its conditions.  Clarke persevered however, and was released in 1898. The following year, he returned to the U.S., married Miss Kattie Daly and settled in Brooklyn. He returned to Fenian activities and was employed by an Irish-American newspaper edited by John Devoy, the most powerful figure in Clan na Gael.  Highly respected for the suffering he had endured for Irish freedom, Clarke became one of the Clan’s most trusted members.

In December 1907, he was sent to Ireland to rejuvenate the IRB. As the trusted link with the Irish exiles of Clan na Gael, he was appointed to the Supreme Council of the Brotherhood and was one of its most powerful advocates of revolutionary action.  He plotted a course with young IRB organizer, Sean MacDiarmada, to replace inactive members of the Council with young militants and to attract new blood into the movement.  Clarke saw a young schoolteacher speak at a commemoration ceremony and invited him to deliver the 1913 oration at the grave of Irish patriot, Wolfe Tone, an annual event of considerable nationalist significance.  Within a few weeks, the young schoolteacher, Padraig Pearse, had joined the IRB.

As the most consistent advocate of revolutionary action, Clarke set the course that led to the Easter Rising.  With the start of the Irish Volunteer movement in 1913, Clarke insured that IRB men were on the provisional committee and Pearse became the critical link between the two groups.  In May of 1915, Clarke established a Military Council of the IRB; by year’s end, they had set a date for a rising. In January 1916, he brought labor leader, James Connolly, onto the Military Council, thereby securing the support of the Irish Citizen Army – a group formed to protect the workers during the great Dublin labor lock-out of 1913.  In February, Clarke informed Clan na Gael that a rising would take place in Dublin on Easter Sunday which would signal the start of a nation wide rebellion.

The confusion of events caused by Volunteer Chief of Staff MacNeill’s late cancellation of maneuvers, upset the original schedule and caused the historic decision to rise on the following day – Easter Monday.  It was not the rising that Clarke had planned, but a braver one in military terms since hope had vanished for a subsequent rising on a national scale.  Yet, it altered the course of the Irish nation, for Irish resentment to the brutality with which the rising was crushed led to her War of Independence.  The Easter Rising was led by Tom Clarke, Padraig Pearse, James Connolly, Eamon Ceannt, Sean MacDiarmada, Joseph Plunkett and Thomas MacDonagh – all of whom were executed for their dreams.  Yet the respect and admiration of these leaders for their mentor was paramount.  Just prior to the rising, when the Proclamation of the Irish Republic was drawn up, the man given the honor of having his name affixed first was the veteran Fenian, Thomas J. Clarke.  His execution was significant because America did nothing while the Brits executed an American citizen.

In 1983, a sentence found in an old biography of Tom Clarke led to a remarkable search. The sentence referred to his relocation to Suffolk County without naming the town.  As AOH County Historian, I set up a committee to locate the homesite for its historic significance.  Intensive research through old books, records and conversations with recognized experts in the field, revealed little.  Finally, a search of deeds in the Town of Brookhaven archives produced two deeds showing that Thomas J. Clarke of Brooklyn had purchased 30 acres in Manorville in 1906, and an adjoining 30 in 1907.  The name on those deeds was verified to be the same as that found in the primary position on the historic Proclamation of the Irish Republic.

Today, a monument of Wicklow Granite stands on the site of Clarke’s Long Island homestead, erected by the Suffolk County A.O.H. and where an annual commemoration ceremony is held for Clarke and all who died in the quest for Irish freedom.  In 1996, the name of Kathleen Daly Clarke was added to the monument in recognition of her great contribution to the cause.  Thomas J. and Kathleen D. Clarke were an inspired, as well as an inspirational couple.  They prepared a whole generation for liberty and guided them through its fulfillment.  In no other nation’s history can one find a husband and wife so actively devoted to the goal of freedom.

Kathleen Daly Clarke grew up enduring the harassment of alien soldiers aimed at her nationalist family yet, she voluntarily placed herself, and her three children in the position of enduring that harassment again, for the sake of Ireland. Together,  Tom and Katty taught the Irish to be proud of who they were, and inspired leaders among them to action.  It was Tom who called the men of Easter Week to their duty, and led them to their destiny.  And when that destiny turned out to be the ultimate sacrifice, he went proudly and defiantly to the wall, and fired the fury of the Irish nation.  When he did, Kathleen Daly Clarke was waiting to lead them to the final victory with the tools that he had fashioned.  She established a network of Prisoners Defense offices around the country to assist the dependents of those in jails and when the prisoners were released in a general amnesty, she chose the next leader as she handed the names, plans and assets of the IRB to Michael Collins who converted the offices to recruiting stations.  It was too perfect to have been orchestrated by the hand of man alone – there had to be some divine intervention.

After her life of service, Kathleen recorded that her only regret was refusing to allow a memorial to be erected in honor of her late husband.  Her logic was that as long as one person in Ireland still suffered as a result of the Rising, she could not sanction putting money  into bricks and mortar.  Years later, realizing that not even one street in Dublin had been named for Thomas J. Clarke, she regretted that position.  In 1987, when we erected this memorial to Thomas J. Clarke, Sam O’Reilly, one of the last surviving soldiers of the Easter Rising, and a man who had known the Clarkes in life, said to me, “Tom would have liked this.”  In 1996, when we added the Katty’s name to the monument, there were some who said that if you listened hard enough, you might have heard a woman’s voice saying, “I like it too.”

This year’s service was attended by National, State and County Officers and members of the AOH and LAOH.  The Siol na hEireann Irish Pipe Band of AOH Div 8 opened the service with a selection of patriotic tunes and National Historian, Mike McCormack gave a short address at the monument evoking the memory of Tom and Katty Clarke.  Two wreaths were then placed: one with green, white and orange flowers for deceased Irish patriots and one with red white and blue for Ireland’s deceased American supporters.  Siol na hEireann then closed the ceremony with A Nation Once Again and as the last notes were sounding, the thunder of motorcycles punctuated the reverie as the Hibernian Riders Motorcycle Club rode by in salute with Irish and American flags flying.  It was a stirring finish to an emotional ceremony.  The spectators then retired to a local Country Club for a Communion Mass and Breakfast in memory of Ireland’s patriots.

The Claddagh Ring

Many people will be getting a Claddagh Ring for Christmas this year and should be aware of it significance.  Designed and worn in Ireland since the late 1600′s, the Claddagh Ring has enjoyed a growing popularity with Irish exiles the world over. The modern Galway Jeweller, Stephen Fallon Ltd, notes, The use of joined hands to denote friendship and the human heart to denote charity is common enough in forms of art which use highly conventionalized symbolism” and “rings of this general type, known as fidelity rings are not excessively uncommon. However, when referring to the crowned heart supported by two hands, it is stated that this particular style is most definitely the Claddagh Ring and nothing else.

The earliest maker of this design was a Galway goldsmith named Joyce who had learned his craft in a remarkable way.  When still a young man, he was taken by Algerian pirates and spent several years in captivity indentured to a Tunisian goldsmith, where he became a skilled craftsman in precious metals.  When William III acceded to the throne of England in 1689, he made a treaty with the Moors whereby all of his subjects who were in captivity were freed.  Joyce returned to the town of Claddagh in County Galway and pursued a career with his new-found skills.  He prospered as a goldsmith and several examples of his ecclesiastical works are still in existence.  Shortly after his return home, Joyce created a ring design that became popular around the town of Claddagh and gradually across the whole of County Galway.  Known as the Claddagh ring, they were kept as heirlooms with pride and passed from generation to generation, often being used as wedding rings.  Even people of limited means were prepared to exert themselves to make enough money to purchase a good example of the ring.  Its popularity continued to spread and, after Joyce’s death, the tradition was carried on by the Robinson family who became the principle makers of the ring throughout the 18th century.

As to the meaning of the symbols on the ring, several stories exist.  The most likely however, is one that this writer learned from an old Galway shanachy, and it had to do with the history of the time.  During England’s attempted conquest of Ireland, each generation of Irish resisted the yoke of slavery forced upon them.  In 600 years of English intrusion, there were no less than 14 resistance movements – 11 of which were armed rebellions!  It was after one of these aborted risings – the Nine Years War of O’Neill, Maguire, and O’Donnell against the Crown – that the English decided to end the threat of the Irish clans forever.  In 1607, charges of treason were fabricated against the strongest clan Chieftains: those of Tyrone, Tirconnell, and Fermanagh and those noble leaders were forced to flee Ireland in what became known as the Flight of the Earls.  After the Flight of the Earls, the Irish again found themselves oppressed and, in desperation, the next generation rose against the Crown in the Williamite War.  In 1691, when the last bastion of Irish resistance in that war fell with the capitulation of Limerick, the English pressed their advantage.  The remaining Gaelic aristocracy was either destroyed or forced into exile in what became known as the Flight of the Wild Geese.  In exile, the Irish lamented the loss of their beloved Erin and preserved their love for Ireland in song and story.

When the Claddagh Ring was designed, the Flight of the Earls was recent memory and the Flight of the Wild Geese was a current event.  Joyce, who was well aware of the heartbreak of a forced exile from Ireland, fashioned the Claddagh Ring as a reminder to all Irishmen of the ties that bound them to their heritage.  The two hands grasping a heart topped with a crown – symbolized the embrace of mother Ireland on the hearts of Gaelic royalty, and it was cast in gold as a reminder of the riches of Erin stolen by the Saxon invader.  It received its name from the little town of Claddagh, the village where Joyce introduced his creation.  This is the traditional explanation offered by many Galway natives whose families go back to the days of Joyce, and beyond.  However, Joyce never left a written explanation of his design and modern jewelers offer more romantic explanations hoping to improve its marketability among non-Irish and it has become very popular with lovers.  Today, there is no other ring which can offer the buyer a choice of so many meanings.  As is the case with most ancient creations whose origins are clouded by the mists of time, the truth may lie somewhere between the fact and the legend that have combined in the legacy of the Claddagh Ring.  As for this writer, my Claddagh ring will always remind me of the hold that Ireland has on my heart!

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