Historical Happenings for January 2021

THE BEGINNING OF THE END

by Mike McCormack, NY State Historian

       The Black and Tans

When Sir Robert Peel introduced the Irish Constabulary in 1822 he never expected the colloquial terms “Bobby” and “Peeler” to derive from his name, nor did he expect that though well intended, it would become the most hated force in modern Irish history.  A Constabulary was set in each province with constables and inspectors under British administration in Dublin Castle.  Separate from the ministry of war, it was only for civilian policing. For most of its history, it was about 75% Irish Catholic, who joined needing employment, and 25% Protestant, though most senior officers were Protestant.  Queen Victoria added the prefix Royal to their name for their service during the Fenian rising of 1867; thus was born the Royal Irish Constabulary (RIC).

Unlike police elsewhere in Britain, the RIC were armed and billeted in barracks.  A few of its Irish members were sympathetic to the nationalist cause after 1916 and even worked with Michael Collins on clandestine activities allowing him to infiltrate the administration with the help of men like Ned Broy, David Neligan, Joseph Kavanagh and James McNamara.  Some also co-operated with the IRA out of fear for their lives and welfare of their families.  A raid on an RIC barracks in Cookstown, County Tyrone, in June 1920, was carried out with the help of sympathetic RIC men.  The barracks in Schull, County Cork, was captured with similar inside aid.  Collins even had RIC spies within the upper echelon at Dublin Castle.  However after the start of the War of Independence in January 1919, the RIC were markedly British and a civilian campaign of intimidation began against them.  They were subjected to threats, attacks and their families were ostracized by the local community.  By June 1920, RIC casualties rose to 55 killed and 74 wounded.  Barracks were attacked and recruitment suffered as RIC morale declined.  Barracks were abandoned and ranks were consolidated as pressure on their families, friends and shopkeepers resulted in resignations and early retirements.  Several also left rather than fight their countrymen over an issue with which they agreed.  However that was soon to change.

In late 1919, the Brits decided to counter the reduction in force by equipping the remaining RIC with military trucks, rockets, bombs and shotguns. Finding a more powerful RIC still insufficient to defeat Collins, PM Lloyd George, for political reasons, still refused to recognize the IRA as a military force.  He insisted that controlling them was a policeman’s task and called for more, better-prepared men in police uniforms.  Thus began the recruitment of jobless returning WW1 veterans.  Hurried into RIC service in January 1920 with a combination of dark green RIC jackets and khaki British Army pants, they were dubbed the Black and Tans. They had been recruited into and were under the control of RIC officers, but their lack of police training soon showed in their heavy-handed tactics.  Still unable to stop Collins’ IRA, a drastic move was made as a new force made up of returning military Officers were recruited in June. These turned out to be mostly battlefield commissions and  a lower class of men than Sandhurst quality officers. They were sent as an Auxiliary unit of the RIC but were, in fact, a counter-insurgency force operating independently under their own officers to open an offensive against the IRA.  They became notorious for their brutality and attacks on civilian instead of military targets.

On Bloody Sunday in Dublin, 21 November 1920, after 14 British intelligence agents were shot, the new RIC, with their Tans and Auxies, claiming that the Gaelic Athletic Association (GAA) was in league with the IRA,  retaliated by firing on an innocent crowd at a GAA football match, killing 14 civilians and wounding 65.  In December, the Brits declared martial law in southern Ireland and the civilian center of Cork city was burnt out by the new RIC in reprisal for an ambush on a military convoy.  Brian Hanley,  historian at National University of Ireland, noted that: the Brits were wrong that the GAA was a front for the IRA. While some of its members were in the IRA and the GAA was for independence, it was divided on the wisdom of armed rebellion.  They even refused to let the IRA use Croke Park for drills. Collins wanted the 21 November Croke Park match called off, fearing a reprisal for the shooting of the British spies that morning, but GAA officials refused since the day’s proceeds were for the families of imprisoned Irish republicans. Hanley said that the GAA massacre was the tipping point in the war.  It was then, in January 1921, 100 years ago, that the RIC, their Black and Tans and  Auxiliary units all became special targets by order of Michael Collins marking the beginning of their end. 

On 1 January the IRA ambushed an RIC patrol in Ballybay, County Monaghan, killing one officer and wounding others, the next day two RIC men were executed in a Belfast hotel.  On 4 January, an RIC Sergeant was fatally wounded in an IRA grenade attack in Armagh.  A Waterford IRA column ambushed an  RIC patrol outside Cappoquin on 5 January and on 7 January, ambushed another at Pickardstown.  On 12 January, the IRA ambushed a British troop train carrying 150 soldiers at Barnesmore Gap, County Donegal and on 20 January the IRA in Clare ambushed an RIC truck at Glenwood, between Sixmilebridge and Broadford in which six RIC were killed, two were wounded but escaped and the IRA took their weapons and over 1,000 rounds of ammunition before burning the truck. On 22 January, three RIC officers were killed near their County Monaghan barracks and an IRA ambush was mounted in County Armagh where two RIC men were killed and others injured.  In Dublin, IRA Third Battalion ambushed a number of RIC trucks at the Merrion Square/Mount Street intersection and a standing fight developed until the Brits withdrew with high casualties and no IRA losses.  By the end of January 1921, the RIC began carrying republican prisoners in their trucks when on patrol to stop grenade attacks on them, with signs saying “Bomb us now“.  This was discontinued when foreign journalists in the city reported it. They later covered the open back of their trucks with a mesh to prevent grenades from entering the vehicles, to which the IRA responded by attaching hooks to the grenades!

It soon became obvious that Collins’ IRA could not be defeated and the attacks on civilians in retaliation for attacks on the RIC had done little more than increase civilian support for the Republicans fighting for the independence of their country.  The end was near as a treaty in less than a year’s time would disband the RIC during a debate over whether they were just an armed police unit or a paramilitary force.  Either way, Peel’s Constabulary formed in 1822 was no more by 1922.  But some don’t know their history.

Unbelievably, in January 2020, Irish Taoiseach Leo Varadkar asked the Irish people to pay homage by attending special commemorations to honor the Royal Irish Constabulary!  The request not only sparked major controversy, it resulted in the Wolfe Tones 1972 recording of Come Out Ye Black and Tans returning to the number one spot on the Irish charts.  Thankfully the people remembered their history and the commemoration was cancelled.  While it is worth remembering that the RIC had a few resignations after the heavy-handed crushing of the 1916 Rising, with some leaving the force as independence agitation increased and some even working as double agents on behalf of the IRA, there was also the fact that the overwhelming majority of the RIC were British tools of repression.  They had tumbled thousands of homes, evicting men women and children into starvation and exile during the Great Hunger; they helped defeat the Fenian brotherhood and the 1916 patriots and supported the Black and Tans and Auxiliaries during their murderous campaigns during the War of Independence.  Their  disbandment, shortly after a truce in July 1921 sent more than 6,000 officers and men back to England where they belonged and the only commemorations that should ever be held are prayers for those who died at their hands.

Historical Happenings for December 2020

A DECEMBER TO REMEMBER

by Mike McCormack, NY State Historian

The Burning of Cork City in December 11-12, 1920

According to the Supercentenarian Data table of the Irish Central Statistics Office on 29 November 2020, five woman in Ireland have passed their 110th birthday.  They are among the 456 Irish Centenarians and as little girls of 10 years a century ago, they experienced one of Ireland’s most tragic months – December 1920.

It was a time when the Irish people, inspired by the deeds of 1916, were involved in a War of Independence which  was about to enter its third year.  The new Army of the Irish Republic, made up of members of former Volunteers, Citizen Army, Hibernian Rifles and others was led by Michael Collins’ Irish Republican Brotherhood (IRB).  They had been concentrating their efforts on British military targets like Royal Irish Constabulary (RIC) barracks and ambushing British patrols.  The Brits found it difficult to defeat them for Collins fought a guerrilla campaign of hit and run tactics supported by the Irish people.  In March, 1920, the British government introduced the Black and Tans to beef up the RIC with little effect.  Then in July, they introduced the Auxiliaries, a counter-insurgency group of former military officers to act as a paramilitary force and launch reprisals against the civilian population to scare them away from their support of the IRB.  

The Black and Tans were reportedly under the control of the RIC, but the Auxies, as they were known, operated  independently and soon gained a reputation for brutality.  After the summer of 1920, the Tans and Auxies began responding to IRA attacks on military targets by carrying out arbitrary reprisals against civilian targets. This usually involved the burning of homes and farms with gunfire and grenades and the looting of businesses, all accompanied by beatings and killings.   Many villages also suffered mass reprisals, like the Sack of Balbriggan on 20 September.  After an ambush of a military convoy in Rineen, County Clare on 22 September, in which six RIC men were killed,  the surrounding villages of Milltown Malbay, Lahinch and Ennistymon were put to the torch and five civilians were killed.   Also burned were the villages of Kilkee (26 September), Trim (27 September), Tubbercurry (30 September) and Granard (31 October).  In early November, they besieged Tralee in reprisal for the IRA killing of two local RIC men, closing all the businesses in the town, letting no food in for a week and shooting dead three local civilians.  On 14 November, they even abducted and murdered a Catholic priest, Father Michael Griffin, in Galway.  From that time on, the level of brutality was far above the norm.  Then came a deadly December and the most barbarous act of revenge ever perpetrated against an innocent civilian population.

On 10 December 1920, the British government and administration in Ireland put the official stamp of approval on the reprisals by proclaiming Martial Law in counties Cork, Kerry, Limerick and Tipperary and imposing a 10pm curfew..  The next day, 20 Auxies were dispatched by Auxie Captain Charles Schulze in two lorries from Cork’s Victoria Barracks to carry out a series of raids.  The lorries were ambushed near Dillon’s Cross by 6 IRA men trying to prevent those raids and 12 Auxies were wounded; one critically.  At 9:30 pm that evening, more lorries of Auxies and British soldiers were sent to Dillon’s Cross where they broke into houses, herded the occupants onto the street and burned their homes to the ground.  Those who tried to intervene were fired on and some were badly beaten.  After seven buildings were set alight, one was found to be owned by Protestants and the Auxies quickly doused the fire.  Then the arsonists turned their anger on Cork City.

At curfew, witnesses reported seeing them arrive on St. Patrick’s Street, the city’s main thoroughfare.  Some were Auxies, some were British Army while others wore no uniforms at all as they smashed shop windows and set buildings alight.  A group of Auxies were seen throwing a bomb into the ground floor of the Munster Arcade, which housed both shops and flats.  It exploded under the residential quarters while people were still inside.  Those who escaped were detained by the Auxies.  The city’s fire brigade came at once.  On finding Grant’s department store ablaze, they tried to save it.  Fire brigade Superintendent, Alfred Hutson, met Cork Examiner reporter, Alan Ellis, and told him “all the fires were being deliberately started by incendiary bombs” and in several cases he had seen: “soldiers pouring cans of petrol into buildings and setting them alight.”  Firemen later testified that British forces hindered their attempts to tackle the blazes by intimidating them, cutting their hoses and/or driving lorries over the hoses.  The firemen were shot at and at least two were wounded.  Shortly after 3 am, Ellis found a unit of the fire brigade pinned down by gunfire from Brits who had broken into the City Hall building and  the firemen watched as uniformed men carried cans of petrol into the building from nearby Union Quay barracks.

At about 4 am a large explosion was heard and City Hall and the neighboring Carnegie Library went up in flames, resulting in the loss of a treasure in historic documents and public records.  When more firefighters arrived, British forces fired on them and refused them access to water.  The final act of arson took place at about 6am when a group of policemen looted and burned Murphy Brothers’ clothing shop on Washington Street.  After eight hours of uncontrolled destruction, five acres of the city, including more than 40 businesses and 300 homes were destroyed, amounting to near $11 million  in damage by today’s value while many were left homeless and 2,000 were left jobless.

The final act of vengeance associated with that event took place on 15 December as Auxie officer, Vern Hart, killed Catholic Very Rev. Canon Thomas J. Magner, who had been told to toll his bell for deceased British military on Armistice Day a month earlier on 11 November and he refused.  On a quiet road a mile from the Cork side of Bandon, he was walking with parishioner, Tadgh O’Crowley, when Hart shot them both dead.  Hart was arrested and at his Court Martial it was noted that he had been a close friend of the Auxie killed at Dillon’s Cross and had been drinking heavily since 11 December.  A number of ‘expert’  witness testified that Hart was temporarily insane at the time of the murders and the Court Martial ruled that he ‘was guilty of the offenses with which he was charged, but was insane at the time of their commission.’   He was discharged from the Auxies and sent to an asylum for a year.  He was then retired to South Africa and died in Golden Valley Hotel, Cape Provence in 1937 at age 55.  If that wasn’t rubbing enough salt in the wound, the Auxies took to wearing burnt corks in their caps to taunt the Irish. Auxie Captain Schulze, wrote to his girlfriend in England that it was “sweet revenge“, while to his mother he wrote: “Many who had witnessed scenes in France and Flanders say that nothing they had experienced was comparable with the punishment meted out in Cork.

Some debated whether British at Victoria Barracks had planned to burn the city before the ambush at Dillon’s Cross ever took place, or whether the British Army was even involved and whether those who set the fires were under the command of superior officers.  Florry O’Donoghue, intelligence officer of the 1st Cork Brigade IRA at the time, answered that debate when he wrote: “The ambush provided the excuse for an act which was long premeditated and for which all arrangements had been made.  The rapidity with which supplies of petrol and Verey lights were brought from Cork barracks to the centre of the city and the deliberate manner in which the work of firing the various premises was divided amongst groups under the control of officers, gives evidence of organization and pre-arrangement.  Moreover, the selection of certain premises for destruction and the attempt made by an Auxiliary officer to prevent the looting of one shop by Black and Tans: ‘You are in the wrong shop; that man is a Loyalist’ and the reply, ‘We don’t give a damn; this is the shop that was pointed out to us’, is additional proof that the matter had been carefully planned beforehand.”  Then, the month ended on 30 December 1920 as Martial law was extended to Counties Clare, Kilkenny, Waterford and Wexford and the horror began anew. 

We can only imagine what those little girls who lived through that time would have experienced or the trauma they may have endured.  On the other hand, we are happy that they lived to see a partially independent Irish Republic when so many others were denied that privilege.

Historical Happenings for November 2020

THOMAS MACDONAGH

by Mike McCormack, NY AOH Historian

                 Thomas Macdonagh Jr

Many believe the War of 1812 ended when Irish-American Andy Jackson beat the British at New Orleans on January 8, 1815.  Actually that’s not true.  The Brits were already beaten and had signed a peace treaty on December 24, 1814.  The fact is that Major General Edward Pakenham, commander of British forces in North America, decided that before sailing back to England, he would loot a major U.S. city and headed for the richest plum in the south – New Orleans.  He was also the man who beat the French who came to help the Irish in 1798.  Packenham was a loyal Brit and hated the Irish and America.  Fortunately, General Jackson also hated the Brits since his parents had been driven into exile from their Irish home.  He went to New Orleans to stop Packenham, aided by the very same French General that Packenham had defeated in Ireland, but that’s another story for another time.

The war had started over the issue of British naval vessels stopping American ships on the high seas and removing crew members they felt were British citizens. The fact is that they were grabbing Irishmen since their loss in the American Revolution just 30 year earlier was due to the large number of Irish in Washington’s army. Writing about the Revolution, James Froude, English historian noted: Washington’s Irish supporters were the foremost, the most irreconcilable, and the most determined to push the quarrel to the last extremity.  Major General Marquis de Chastellux wrote: On more than one occasion Congress owed their existence, and America her preservation to the fidelity and firmness of the Irish.

However, 30 years later, England was at war with Napoleon and the U.S. was trading with France.  That made American shipping targets in the eyes of the Brits and if a war with America was in the cards, they didn’t want to face Irishmen in the American army again so they began impressing American seamen and also inciting Native Americans to attack American citizens on the frontier. On 18 June an angry Senate, following an equally furious Congress, voted to declare, for the first time in the young nation’s history, war against a foreign nation – Great Britain.  President James Madison signed the declaration into law and the War of 1812 began.  Sometimes called the Second War of Independence, battles raged on the high seas and British soldiers invaded American soil, captured Washington D.C., and even burned the White House.  But it all boiled down to a major area of conflict on the 120 mile long Lake Champlain extending from British Canada into New York and Vermont.  That 435-square-mile lake was the scene of several naval battles as the Brits sailed down from Quebec into the U.S.

Fortunately, one of Washington’s Irish-American revolutionary officers, Major Thomas McDonough, Sr., a hero of the battle of Long Island who was  praised by Washington for gallantry, had a son who was just as ready as his father to fight the Brits. Grandson of James McDonough who migrated from Ireland in 1725, his name was Thomas Macdonagh Jr. He joined the new U.S. Navy, formed  just a few years earlier in 1797, when President Washington gave Wexford-born Commodore John Barry Commission Number One.  Three years later, in 1800, Thomas received a midshipman’s commission at the age of 16.  He served with Stephen Decatur at Tripoli and as a member of a select group of U.S. naval officers under Commodore Preble attacking Barbary pirates. He was reassigned to command U.S. naval forces in Lake Champlain in October 1812 and in 1813, was promoted to  master commandant. When the war began, there were only two American naval vessels on Lake Champlain and both were captured by the Brits giving them undisputed control of this strategic waterway.  In a secret Vermont shipyard, MacDonough began construction of a corvette, a sloop, several gunboats and converted a schooner into a 17-gun warship. The Brits found and attempted to attack the shipyard with eight galleys and a sloop, but Macdonough learned of the coming attack and prepared a defense using his ship’s guns as a shore battery and repelled the attack driving them back to Canada. 

With the way now clear, Macdonough’s squadron sailed out of the shipyard and made its way to Plattsburgh, NY, where it awaited a two-pronged British advance by land and lake.  In August 1814, 10,000 British troops assembled at the US border to march south and attack Brigadier General Alex Macomb’s, army defending America’s northern border.  Macomb, grandson of an Irish immigrant, had only 1500 men, but knowing he was greatly outnumbered, had his men fell trees and create fake roads to lead the Brits, unsure of the terrain, into dead-end traps where they became lost in the narrow maze of false roads and were targets of American ambush. Meanwhile, the Brits depended on their Navy which was headed for Plattsburgh to supply their planned advance into Vermont.  This was now the most crucial part of the war.  Macdonough knew Macomb was holding Plattsburgh and not allowing him to be surrounded by Brits forces on land and lake, was vital.  The Royal Navy was on its way south to trap Macomb’s forces and open the door to an invasion of the U.S.   However, Macdonagh had his back and his fleet was ready.  On September 11, the Brits arrived and attacked Macdonough’s fleet with the firepower of a 36-gun flagship. As the battle unfolded, Macdonough fired a broadside severely damaging the British ship and forcing its surrender.  Having removed the British flagship from action, the American forces captured or destroyed all the remaining ships in the fleet.  On shore, the British, about to launch an assault on the American defenses, learned of the defeat of the British fleet.  Without it, they had no choice but to abandon the expedition.  They turned tail, returned to Canada and sued for peace.  The War of 1812 was over. Both Macomb and Macdonagh received Congressional Gold Medals, a precursor to the Medal of Honor. In 1882, President Theodore Roosevelt wrote:  Macdonough in this battle won a higher fame than any other commander of the war, British or American. He had a decidedly superior force to contend with and it was solely owing to his foresight and resource that we won the victory. His skill, seamanship, quick eye, readiness of resource, and indomitable pluck, are beyond all praise. Down to the time of the Civil War he is the greatest figure in our naval history.  Macdonagh continued serving until 1818 when he was stricken with tuberculosis, yet at his request, he was granted command of the 44-gun frigate USS Constitution, Old Ironsides, in 1824.  However, his health continued to worsen. On 14 October 1825, at Gibraltar, Macdonough turned command of Constitution over to another Irish-American – Captain Daniel Patterson who was born on Long Island to a Donegal immigrant father. Intending to return to New York, on 10 November 1825, 195 years ago this month, Thomas Macdonough, the hero of the War of 1812, died aboard ship as it was passing the Rock of Gibraltar.  Shouldn’t Irish-Americans like that be remembered?  Well, they are!

Standing on Washington Boulevard in Detroit where he was born is the statue of Gen. Alex Macomb, but Macdonogh is more celebrated. Several U.S. Navy ships have been named USS Macdonough; in 1937, he was on a US Postage Stamp; an annual 74-mile Commodore Macdonough sailboat race is held on Lake Champlain every September; the State University of NY at Plattsburgh has a dormitory  named Macdonough Hall; the NY towns of Macdonough and East Macdonough and the greater Town of Macdonough in Chenango County are named after him; there is a Macdonough Hall at the US Naval Academy; the Macdonough Monument, a 135-foot-tall obelisk is located across from City Hall in Plattsburgh, N.Y. and in 1925, a Macdonough Monument was erected on the city green in Vergennes, Vermont to commemorate the secret building of the ships there used in the Battle of Plattsburgh.  Macdonough County, Illinois is also named for him; two elementary schools in Delaware and  Connecticut are named in his honor as are Macdonough Street in Montgomery, Alabama and Macdonagh Street in Brooklyn, NY.  Macdonough is also the county seat of Henry County, Georgia and his home was listed on the National Register of Historic Places in 1978.  So now you know the War of 1812 was won by two Irish-Americans – Alex Macomb and Thomas Macdonagh and Andy Jackson just put the Irish-American seal of approval on it.

Historical Happenings for October 2020

Bloody Sunday

by Mike McCormack, NY AOH Historian

One hundred years ago, November 21, 1920 was a day of such violence in Dublin that it was ever after referred to as Bloody Sunday (Irish: Domhnach na Fola).  It occurred during the Irish War of Independence as 31 people were killed or fatally wounded on that one day – 14 British military, 14 Irish civilians, and 3 Irish prisoners.

The day began with an operation organized by Michael Collins, to “put out the eyes of the British empire” as  GPO soldier Sam O’Reilly once told this writer.  By late 1920, British Intelligence in Dublin had established an extensive network of spies and informers around the city.  Michael Collins, as head of the Irish Republican Brotherhood and IRA Chief of Intelligence, was running his country’s war for independence and had been hampered to a large degree by those agents.  They operated with impunity, believing that the Irish were unorganized and easily infiltrated.  Collins was determined to show them otherwise by destroying their intelligence network in a coordinated manner.

Collins established his own undercover operation with patriots like Ned Broy, a detective in the Dublin Metropolitan Police, who smuggled him in to spend the night in the Records Room of Great Brunswick Street Police Barracks, and Elizabeth Mernin, first cousin of his IRA Publicity Director, Pearse Beasley who was a typist in Dublin Castle’s adjutant’s office.  She shared critical information about the Castle’s intelligence officers and identified their Dublin residences.  In addition to other operatives, Collins also had formed a clandestine ‘Squad’ of IRA men, known as The Twelve Apostles.  They were tasked with eliminating informers and British operatives whenever they were identified.  Then on 20 November, the Squad and select members of the IRA’s Dublin Brigade, were assembled as a team to be briefed on a specific group of targets.  Thirty-five undercover intelligence agents had been identified as living at different locations in Dublin and the instructions were to eliminate all of them the next morning at precisely 9AM.  Early on the morning of 21 November, some of the team attended Mass and quietly went about their assigned tasks.  One was Seán Lemass, who would later serve as Taoiseach from 1959 to 1966.  On the morning of 21 November however, he helped in the assassination of British Captain G. Baggallay.

Out of the agents on Collins’s hit list, only 14 were killed and 5 were seriously wounded since some were not at home at the time.  However, a number of agents and informers were seen later in the day lining up at the ferries back to England.  The action caused shock waves throughout the Empire and crippled British intelligence in Ireland.  The precision of the operation also caused consternation in the British administration who were now forced to re-evaluate their opponent.  Collins justified the killings saying, ‘My one intention was the destruction of the undesirables who continued to make miserable the lives of ordinary decent citizens.  I have proof enough to assure myself of the atrocities which this gang of spies and informers have committed.  If I had a second motive it was no more than a feeling such as I would have for a dangerous reptile.  By their destruction the very air is made sweeter. For myself, my conscience is clear. There is no crime in detecting in wartime the spy and the informer. They have destroyed without trial. I have paid them back in their own coin.

Afterward, Collins advised the GAA to cancel the afternoon Dublin vs Tipperary football match at Croke Park fearing retaliation.  It was denied since profits of the day were for families of imprisoned Republicans.  About 5,000 spectators attended the game which began at 3:15 PM.   Outside the park, unseen by the crowd, convoys containing a mixed force of military, Royal Irish Constabulary (RIC) Auxiliaries and Black and Tans and police  drove in from the northwest and the south.  The Auxiliaries and Black & Tans were ex-military from WWI sent to help the RIC defeat the Irish.  They had orders to guard the exits and search every man as he left.  However, as soon as they reached the stadium at 3:25 PM, they began shooting.  Some claimed they were fired on first, but that was proven untrue.  Actually, those in the convoy’s lead cars jumped out and chased the ticket sellers down the passage into the Park firing at them.  Meanwhile, a gate opened and a Lorry of troops rode onto the field as scenes of wild confusion erupted.  Spectators made a rush for the far end of the Park as shots were randomly fired into them for a full minute and a half.  Auxiliary Commander, Major Mills, later admitted that his men were ‘excited and out of hand.’ RIC outside the park opened fire at spectators climbing over the wall to escape.  At the other end of the park, soldiers were startled to see panicked people fleeing the grounds and opened fire with their armored car machine gun to halt them.  By the time Major Mills got his men under control, 12 people had been shot dead, 60 were wounded and 2 had been trampled to death in the stampede.  Tipperary player, Michael Hogan, was killed on the field as was a man who bent over him to whisper an Act of Contrition.  Today’s Hogan Stand in Croke Park is named for him.

At first, Castle authorities issued a press release which claimed that a number of gunmen from the morning attack were in Croke Park and Crown forces went to arrest them.  However, they were fired on by armed pickets to warn the wanted men, causing a stampede.  Strongly denied by the thousands in attendance who refuted that bogus claim, when the stands were searched for arms or spent shells, none were found.  British Brigadier Frank Crozier, in command that day, resigned in protest over the official condoning of the unjustified actions of the troops after one of his officers told him that, ‘Black and Tans fired into the crowd without any provocation whatsoever.’  Two military courts of inquiry were held.  One found that ‘the fire of the RIC was carried out without orders and exceeded the demands of the situation’; the other found that ‘the firing on the crowd was carried out without orders, was indiscriminate and unjustifiable.’  These findings were suppressed by the British Government for 80 years and only came to light in 2000 revealing that a total of 228 rounds of ammunition were fired by the RIC and  auxiliaries and that the army machine-gun at the St James’s Avenue exit fired a total of 50 rounds. 

Further, the first victims were two boys watching the game without paying.  William Robinson, 11, was shot as he sat in a tree that gave him a view over the wall and Jerry O’Leary, 10, was shot as he sat on a wall at the southwest end of the field.  They were shot before the Tans and Auxiliaries ever entered the park, suggesting that whatever their orders had been that day, the RIC had other ideas.  It was an act of mass murder by trigger-happy Black and Tans and Auxiliaries bent on avenging the morning’s losses.  Later that day, two Republican officers, Dick McKee and Peadar Clancy, together with Conor Clune (a nephew of the Archbishop of Perth, Australia), who were being held in Dublin Castle, were tortured and shot by the Brits who said they were killed trying to escape!  McKee and Clancy later had Irish Army military barracks in Dublin named for them.

Overall Bloody Sunday was a victory for Collins whose operation severely damaged British intelligence, while the British reprisals increased support for Republican forces at home and abroad.  Bloody Sunday was one of the most significant events to take place during the Irish War of Independence and it happened just 100 years ago.

Historical Happenings for September 2020

Who Fears To Speak Of ’98

by Mike McCormack, NY State Historian

The 1700’s was a Century of Revolution.  When England’s American colonies struck for independence in 1775 during an age of the Divine Right of Kings, it was an unheard of act.  Yet it not only succeeded, it inspired France to revolt in 1789 and 1792 and they too succeeded.  Another attempt inspired by America took place in 1798 as the Irish rose to break the shackles of Empire.   Yet, that one’s not in our history books because it failed, though it was equally justified.  It didn’t even earn the term revolution; if mentioned at all, it is called a rebellion.  Revolution is defined as the forcible overthrow of a social order in favor of a new system while rebellion is defined as an act of defying the authority of an established government.  After King William defeated King James II at the Battle of the Boyne in 1690, a century of oppression drove the Irish into a depressed rage.  By that time, the religious prejudice, long a factor in English-Irish relations, had changed.  William offered a fair treaty in 1691 to end the fighting, but it was broken by England’s Irish administrators to insure power to their own class by the subjugation of all others. The basis of that power was a privileged position accorded to Church of Ireland members.  All others were subjected to Penal Laws that restricted their economic existence, including Presbyterians and other dissenting Protestant sects, though not as severely as Catholics.  Then came Theobold Wolfe Tone.

A Protestant graduate of Trinity College, he returned to Ireland after two years as a Lawyer in London and, influenced by Thomas Paine’s Rights of Man, he developed a philosophy of national independence based on religious suffrage.  In September 1791, he wrote his greatest pamphlet: An Argument on Behalf of the Catholics of Ireland.  Aimed at non-Church of Ireland Protestants, it urged support of Catholic emancipation and was praised by Catholic and Dissenter alike.  He was invited to Belfast and helped organize the Society of United Irishmen. They called for a union of all Irish to peacefully block English influence by parliamentary reform. They even chose a color to symbolize their new Union; it was a blend of St. Patrick’s Blue for the Catholic tradition with Orange for the Protestant tradition. The blended green became identified with Irish nationalism ever since.  Tone then formed a second branch of the United Irishmen in Dublin with patriot Napper Tandy. 

Meanwhile, exaggerated reports of their activities were coming in from informers seeking favor with the Brits.  However, there was no evidence on which to arrest anyone.  Then in 1795, a representative of France’s Minister of Foreign Affairs called on Tone to determine the chances of success for a French invasion.  France had been fighting England ever since they supported the Americans in their Revolution.  France’s representative was arrested as a spy and Tone was exiled to America.  That turned Tone from a parliamentary reformer to a military advocate.  In America, he contacted the French Minister in Philadelphia to determine if the French were serious in aiding a full scale rising of the United Irishmen.  He went to France and secured that aid and in December 1796, a French invasion force sailed for Ireland.  On board, in the uniform of a French Adjutant General, was Theobald Wolfe Tone.

On December 21, a French fleet with 12,000 troops arrived at Bantry Bay, but the ship carrying the invasion commanders had separated from the fleet.  The landing was delayed until their arrival, but as they waited, a full scale hurricane scattered the French fleet.  One by one the ships returned to France.  It was later revealed by a British Admiralty official, that the captain of the commanders’ ship had accepted a bribe to take the Commanders on an alternate route.  Tone returned to France to plead for another expedition.  Meanwhile in Ireland, the United Irishmen were defined as disloyal and had become targets of a new group formed among Church of Ireland men who felt that not enough was being done to exterminate ‘Catholic troublemakers’.  They called themselves the Orange Order; they raided homes d businesses, murdered Catholic tenants and burned their homes to the ground.

Society headquarters shifted to Dublin where men like Lawyer Thomas A. Emmet, Doctor William McNevin and Lord Edward Fitzgerald were involved.  Fitzgerald had served in a British regiment in the American colonies and felt that the guerrilla tactics of the colonists should be used.  Under his influence, the Society grew from a reform movement to an underground army. The leaders argued to wait for French aid, but Lord Edward urged a general rising across the country.  An informer gave the names of the leaders and location of their meeting to Dublin Police who arrested them all except Fitzgerald.  On March 30, the Brits put the country under Martial Law and there followed brutal methods of interrogation – a wooden triangle to hold a man for flogging with a cat o’ nine tails; a portable traveling gallows to half-hang a man and pitch-capping by massaging a mixture of tar and gunpowder into the hair and setting it alight with agonizing effect.  Fear of pitch-capping caused many to crop their hair short even though they ran the risk of being identified as United Irish supporters; they earned the name Croppys.  The song The Croppy Boy may now have more meaning for you.

On May 23, 1798, individual groups of United Irishmen rose in several counties but  were put down by soldiers billeted there.  With no central command to the rising, government successes soon led frenzied Orangemen to engage in ‘croppy hunts’ causing entire villages to flee before them.  The once well-planned reform movement had degenerated into clashes between leaderless mobs and the Brits easily won control.  General Cornwallis, recently defeated by an American army made up primarily of Irish emigrants, was given a chance to redeem himself by a furious King George III.  In June he sailed for Dublin.  Meanwhile, the Brits drove the largest group of rebels in Wexford back to a final stand on a hill near Enniscorthy.  That hill, once covered with wild berrys, had the old local Gaelic name of Fidh naGcaer (Fidh – the Hill; na – of; Caer – the Berrys); it was now covered with people.  Unable to pronounce the Irish, the Brits called it Vinegar Hill, which was also appropriate for what happened there was bitter wine indeed.  On June 21, 10,000 British troops, with 20 pieces of artillery, opened a bombardment on the 20,000 men, women, and children herded together on the summit.  After a day and night of assault, the Irish were massacred.  By August 20 it was over.  The rebellion lasted three months and cost more than 25,000 lives of which only 2,000 were loyalists.  But what happened to the French aid?

That answer came 2 days later on August 22 as General Humbert and a force of 1,000 French troops arrived at the wrong time and at the wrong place – Killala Bay in County Mayo on Ireland’s west coast.  Tone was following with a larger force and behind him the indomitable Napper Tandy with yet more troops.  Could the rising begin again?  The word went out: The West’s Awake!  Humbert recruited a thousand local Irish and marched on the English at Castlebar.  He routed them and marched inland.  Cornwallis consolidated the powerful British army and split his forces to surround Humbert and the Irish.  On September 8, he closed the net at Ballinamuck, County Longford.  Humbert was hopelessly outnumbered.  After a half-hour battle, he surrendered his 850 troops and 1000 Irish allies to the British army of 30,000.  The Irish were slaughtered to a man while Humbert and his forces were repatriated back to France as honorable foes, but not before British Captain Packenham disgraced Humbert on the field of battle by taking his sword and stripping his epaulets.  An angry Napoleon dismissed Humbert to a position in the French colony at New Orleans where he later retired.  However, he and Packenham would meet again 14 years later as now General Packenham led the British forces in an attack on New Orleans in the American War of 1812 and Humbert came out of retirement to fight by Andy Jackson’s side to defeat his old enemy; but that’s another story.

On October 12, Wolfe Tone and reinforcements arrived in yet another disjointed piece of the overall revolution.  They ran directly into a waiting British fleet.  Tone commanded a battery of ships guns, but after 6 hours the French fleet was destroyed, and Tone was captured.  On October 16, Napper Tandy, with yet another fleet, landed in Donegal and learned of Humbert’s surrender and Tone’s capture.  He wisely sailed back to the continent.  Wolfe Tone was taken to Dublin and sentenced to be hanged as a traitor.  He requested to be afforded the death of a soldier, to be shot, rather than hanged, but his request was denied.  He died in prison of a neck wound at the age of 35.  History records his death as a suicide but there remains some doubt.  The rank and file of the United Irish society were pursued and eliminated.  Loyalists, believing that all Catholics had all been part of a conspiracy to slaughter them, intimidated the majority of the population into a slave-mentality that crippled the spirit of resistance for a whole generation.  Ireland remained a most depressed country until Daniel O’Connell began raising the cause of Catholic emancipation once again in the 1840s and the Irish began to raise their heads.  When they did, they heard the voice of Thomas Davis and the Young Irelanders resurrecting the doctrines of Wolfe Tone who was now recognized as the Father of Irish Republicanism.  Tone’s revolution was, in fact, the very first thrust for National independence.  Previous risings were merely attempts at reconfiguring relations with the Crown.  The 1569 and 79 Desmond rebellions; the 1593-1603 Nine Years War of O’Neill, O’Donnell and Maguire; the 1640-42 Confederation War in support of Charles II; the 1690 Rising in support of the Jacobite claim to the Crown would all have left Ireland still a colony of England.  As the spirit of true independence once more began to beat in Irish hearts, a verse appeared in the April 1843 edition of the rebel newspaper, The Nation.   It read:

“Who fears to speak of ‘98?  Who blushes at the name?
When cowards mock the patriot’s fate, who hangs his head for shame?
He’s all a knave, or half a slave who slights his country thus;
But true men, like you men, come fill your glass with us.

Historical Happenings for July 2020

BATTLE OF THE BOYNE

by Mike McCormack, NY State Historian

CAN ANYBODY TELL ME WHY, ORANGEMEN MARCH ON THE TWELFTH OF JULY?

       Battle of the Boyne, July 1, 1690

During the reign of Queen Elizabeth, a religious and political upheaval known as the Protestant Reformation splintered Catholic Europe. Reformers like Luther, Calvin and her father, Henry VIII, had challenged the Papacy for religious and political redistribution of wealth and power. Elizabeth died in 1603 without an heir and the House of Stuart replaced the House of Tudor when the son of Mary, Queen of Scots, took the throne as James I. Born Catholic, he was brought up Presbyterian and as King he was the head of the Anglican Church. When he died in 1625, his son Charles I took the throne and offended his Anglican, Puritan and Presbyterian subjects by marrying Henrietta Maria, a Catholic French princess. He also failed to help Protestants enough in their Thirty Years’ War against Catholics. His marriage and religious policies made him mistrusted by those who thought his views were too Catholic. As a result, by late 1648, Oliver Cromwell’s Model Army took control of England and Charles was tried, convicted, and executed in January 1649.

The monarchy was abolished and a Commonwealth established. After Cromwell’s died in 1658, his son Richard proved to be a poor leader and the public resented the strict Puritanism of his administration. In 1660, the monarchy was restored as the son of Charles I was invited to the throne as Charles II. As head of the Anglican Church, he accepted the Test Act that no one could be elected to a position of power unless they belonged to that Church. He had Cromwell posthumously convicted of treason and his body disinterred and hanged from a gallows at Tyburn. In 1670, Charles signed a treaty with French King Louis XIV to support France’s war against the Dutch. His younger brother, James, was made Duke of York and engineered the seizure of New Amsterdam from the Dutch in 1664 and renamed it New York in his honor. Charles’s wife, Queen Catherine, failed to produce a male heir, and by 1677 many Protestants feared his Catholic brother, James, would soon assume the throne. To appease the public, in 1677 Charles arranged for James’ daughter, Mary, to wed the Dutch Protestant William of Orange. However, Charles got the last word and angered his subjects when he converted and became a Catholic on his deathbed. His brother then became James II of England and his Catholicism was grudgingly accepted since he was 52 years old, had no sons and as King he was head of the Anglican Church. Further, his daughters, Mary and Anne, were Protestant and Mary was heir apparent so all was well. Then James’ wife gave birth to a son!

James Francis Edward Stuart was born on 10 June 1688 and everything changed; a male heir insured a Stuart succession and a Catholic dynasty. Further, James suspended the Scottish and English Parliaments when they refused to repeal the anti-Catholic Test Act. His Anglican supporters remained loyal until he prosecuted seven Anglican bishops who opposed him publicly in June 1688. They took that as an assault on their church and it led to widespread anti-Catholic riots throughout England and Scotland destroying his political authority. Several prominent English Protestants, fearful of James’ promotion of Catholic power and a Catholic succession, invited William of Orange to lead an army to England and call a new Parliament to discuss James’ legitimacy. James was sure his forces could repel such an invasion, but when his Protestant officers deserted to the enemy, James fled to France! On 12 February 1689, Parliament declared James had abdicated and offered the crown to William and Mary Stuart and William III became the first Orange king by deposing his Father-in-Law in a bloodless coup. William and Mary became co-regents of England, Scotland and Ireland.

James saw Ireland as a way to reclaim his crown. Unlike England, Ireland was predominantly Catholic and in March 1689, James landed in Ireland with a force supplied by King Louis XIV of France. William decided to assert his power and arrived in Ireland in June 1690. Amazingly, William was supported by Pope Alexander VIII because the Papacy was part of a “Grand Alliance” opposing Louis XIV’s war in Europe and since Louis supported James, the Pope supported William!! Arriving in Ireland, William intended to march south to take Dublin, but James had established a defensive line at the river Boyne 30 miles north of Dublin. William had to cross the river which was a problem, however, he had an advantage over James: his 36,000 men outnumbered James’ 23,500. The battle took place on 1 July 1690 and William defeated the Irish who retreated south. Meanwhile, James deserted his army in the field and fled to France (by now he knew the way well). He lived out his days in exile as the last Catholic King of England. He also earned a title bestowed by the army he deserted ─ Seamus a Caca!  No year in Irish history is better known than 1690. English historians refer to the Bloodless Revolution, but there was a great deal of bloodshed in Ireland until the Treaty of Limerick ended the conflict in October 1691. The treaty offered generous terms to Catholics if those who opposed William would leave Ireland forever. When the ‘Flight of the Wild Geese’ saw the cream of Irish forces leave to be absorbed into the Irish Brigades of foreign armies, the Treaty was broken and Penal Laws invoked to reinforce Protestant domination throughout Irish life. And it all started with the Battle of the Boyne which the Orangemen celebrate to this day. However, there’s more to the story!

A papal bull issued by Pope Gregory XIII in 1582 had dropped 10 days from the Julian calendar creating the Gregorian calendar followed today. Though the Orange Order has been commemorating the battle on 12 July for nearly 300 years, it actually took place on 1 July 1690 according to the calendar changed 108 years earlier. Either way, that’s not the only thing they are wrong about, is it?

SO NOW YOU SEE WHY THEY CELEBRATE, THE PROBLEM IS IT’S ON THE WRONG DATE!

Historical Happenings for June 2020

A LITTLE GREEN IN THE RED, WHITE AND BLUE

by Mike McCormack, NY State Historian

 June 14 is a special day for America and especially for the Irish in America.  It is a day set aside to honor our national emblem ─ the stars and stripes.  June 14 is Flag Day, a day when we should all be flying our flag in its honor.  Why is it flag day, what does it mean, and what is our flag anyway that it should have a day of its own?

When you describe it in terms of material, it is only a piece of cloth, dyed with a little blue and red that makes a design symbolizing these United States.  And that may be all that it is to some; to those who show it no respect, to those who make clothing from it or to those who have the audacity to burn it.  But that piece of cloth is so much more than material.  It’s even more than a symbol, it’s an emotion and it’s a frame of mind.  The design on that banner wasn’t simply selected because it was attractive; there is a story in that flag.  In British North America, each of the 13 colonies had its own flag.  When they dared to unify and challenge the Crown for their liberty, they sought a banner that would represent them all and define that unity and that freedom.

On June 14, 1777, the Continental Congress enacted a resolution that the flag of these United States should be 13 stripes alternating white and red to represent the purity of their new nation and the blood spilled to win it.  In the corner would be 13 white stars on a field of blue to represent a new constellation in the heavens ─ it was to be called the United States of America.  Later, when the country began to grow, the flag grew as well.  In 1794, when Vermont and Kentucky entered the Union, two more stars and two more stripes were added, but Congress later ordered that the stripes be restored to 13 in remembrance of the 13 original colonies, and allowed that only a new star would be added for each new state.

That’s how it was born, but like most infants, the real story is in how it grew up and it had a few Irish godfathers to help it.  It had a violent birth and the first to carry it into battle was Commodore John Barry, the Irish-born father of the American Navy.  It was also carried by General William Thompson of Co Meath, who became the first commissioned officer in the new United States Army and scores of others who gave their lives that it might fly unchallenged over a free nation and most of those in General Washington’s forces just happened to be Irish!  But those who gave their lives, didn’t give it for a piece of cloth, they gave it for an ideal.  They gave it so that the new constellation would not disappear, for that new flag was not like the flag of any other nation on earth. It didn’t represent a race, an ethnic group or a nationality as other flags did it represented freedom for all races; a truly radical idea.  And, in that respect, it was the first of its kind on earth.

And everyone in America supported it, whether their heritage was Jewish, Italian, Polish, Greek, German, Irish or other.  Yet it held a special place in the hearts of the Irish for this was an emblem that represented all they had ever hoped to achieve, but were denied in their own land.  Like Barry and Thompson in the American Revolution, they felt an emotion for this emblem and came to its aid at every call.  In the War of 1812, the British had to be reminded that our 21-year old United States was not just a temporary union.  They kidnapped American seamen who they claimed were English subjects; of course they were our Irish immigrants who they didn’t want to face once more in battle as they had in the Revolution.  And those same Brits ran from its colors in the final battle of that war at New Orleans where it was carried by General Andrew Jackson, the son of County Antrim immigrants.  When a great civil war threatened to tear that flag in half, among the Americans who rallied to its protection were Thomas Francis Meagher and the famed Irish Brigade who left many a son of Erin on the battlefield so that the stars and stripes might not fall.  It has been carried against oppression by the fighting 69th and led many an Irish heart to victory for his adopted land and there is a fair measure of Irish blood in the red of its stripes.  And while it has flown victorious in battle, it has also draped the coffins of America’s heroes, from her foot soldiers to her Presidents.

It has a grand and glorious history that star spangled banner of ours, and I daresay there’s not another one that can match it.  It is a proud ensign that bows to the flag of no other nation on earth and that tradition was started by an Irishman at the 1908 summer Olympics in London.  NYPD Patrolman Matthew McGrath was a Tipperary-born hammer thrower on the American team and, as the team approached the King of England’s Royal Box during the opening ceremony where all teams dipped their nation’s flags in respect, McGrath broke ranks and stepped up to the American flag bearer and said, Dip our flag and you will be in hospital tonight.  The flag was not dipped and caused an international incident.  Many said the Irishman just wanted to insult the English King, but team-mate, Mayo-born discus thrower Martin Sheridan cleared that up at a news conference. Sheridan spoke for the entire Olympic team when he pointed to the American flag and said, That flag dips to no earthly king.  That precedent is still followed today.  The American Flag has never been dipped to anyone since that day in 1908.  The only time the American flag can legitimately be lowered is in honor of a deceased American.  Yet, there are five locations where even that cannot happen ─ even upon the death of a President.  Under no circumstances is the flag ever lowered over the Betsy Ross House in Philadelphia (its reputed birthplace); over the national memorials of the Alamo, the U.S.S. Arizona at Pearl Harbor and the tomb of the Unknown Soldier.  The last one is because no one can reach it; it’s the American flag planted on the moon.

There has been much praise written for that grand old ensign of ours and it is fitting that some of its most memorable praise came with a bit of an Irish flavor.  When Francis Scott Key wrote the poem, Star Spangled Banner, it was put to the tune of a popular song of the day: To Anacreon in Heaven, but the melody, to which that popular song was written, was a planxty composed by the legendary Irish harpist Turlough O’Carolan.   And it was never praised with more respect than by one of Irish-America’s favorite sons: George M Cohan.  Call it what you will: the Grand Old Flag, Old Glory, the Stars and Stripes or the Star Spangled Banner; June 14th is our flag’s birthday.  Long may it wave.

(repeated from June 2010 by request)

Historical Happenings for May 2020

Historical Happenings ─ Margaret ‘Captain Molly’ Corbin
by Mike McCormack AOH NY State Historian

More than 200 guests gathered at the Captain Molly Memorial at West Point’s U.S. Military Academy on 1 May, 2018, for a re-dedication Ceremony. Recent developments revealed that Margaret Corbin was not in fact buried there as had been believed since 1926. After the grave was accidentally disturbed in 2016 by excavators building a wall nearby, the opportunity for forensic testing of the remains presented itself and the tests revealed the remains were of a middle-aged man who lived in the Colonial period. However, the Daughters of the American Revolution (DAR) who erected the memorial felt that she was too important to be forgotten. With National Military Cemeteries and the US Military Academy a decision was made to schedule a special re-dedication of the monument to Margaret’s valor and celebrate her legacy regardless of where she may be buried. But just who was Captain Molly?
She was born Margaret Cochran in November 1751 on the western PA frontier to Irish immigrant Robert Cochran and his wife Sarah. When just five years old, her father was killed in an Indian raid and her mother was kidnaped. Margaret escaped and was raised by an uncle. At 21, she married farmer John Corbin. When America’s Revolution began, John enlisted in the regiment that General ‘Light Horse’ Harry Lee called the ‘Line of Ireland’. As was common at the time, Margaret went with him, joining other women in cooking, washing and caring for the wounded; it was there her dominating personality won her the nickname ‘Captain Molly’. On 16 November 1776, while stationed at Fort Washington, NY, they were attacked by the Brits. John Corbin’s cannon crew was being decimated by enemy fire when John was killed. Margaret sprang into action and began loading and firing the cannon by herself until she was wounded by grapeshot which tore her shoulder, mangled her chest and lacerated her jaw. After the fort was captured, the wounded were ferried across the river to Fort Lee, then by wagon to Philadelphia.
Margaret never fully recovered from her wounds and was left without the use of her left arm for life which was a terrible blow for a such a previously dynamic Irish-American woman. She had no way to earn a living and even needed help bathing and dressing. In June, 1776 the Commonwealth of PA gave her $30.00 in recognition of her bravery, but that didn’t go far. Then in 1779, impressed with her service, Congress made an unprecedented decision; they granted her a pension of half a soldier’s monthly pay and clothing allowance; she even got a rum ration and some back pay. With this act, Congress made her the first woman to receive an American military pension. At war’s end she was transferred to the Corps of Invalids at West Point, where she helped, as best she could, with cooking and laundry. In Major Boynton’s History of West Point, she is described as ‘appearing with an artilleryman’s coat over her skirts, she was coarse, red-haired, wholly wanting in feminine charms and one of her biographers recorded that used swear words.’ She died in Highland Falls, NY on 16 Jan 1800, at the young age of 48. In 1909 a plaque was set to her memory in Fort Tryon Park near the Fort Washington battle site noting that she was ‘the first American woman to take a soldier’s part in the War for Liberty’ and the park entrance was named Margaret Corbin Circle. A large mural depicting her in the battle also decorates the lobby of nearby 720 Fort Washington Avenue.
In 1926, the 50th anniversary of American independence prompted a search for her forgotten burial site. An overgrown grave was discovered and a body exhumed and identified by the wounds she incurred and the DAR had her re-interred with full military honors in the West Point Cemetery and erected the memorial, making her the only Revolutionary War veteran so honored. Despite the recent discovery that she was not really in that grave, the DAR decided to rededicate the memorial to her memory since her story is so important. DAR President Ann Dillon noted: “it epitomizes the very reason our organization was founded”. At the ceremony, Jennifer Minus, New York State Officers Club President said: “It’s important to remember that Margaret Corbin’s life and actions are not folklore; she was an actual woman who lived, fought and was recognized by name in Congressional and War Department records. Military spouse and widow, wounded warrior, prisoner of war and disabled veteran, she remains an inspiration to all who serve.” Colonel Diane Ryan, on behalf of the Military Academy added: “She is not just a role model for female cadets, she is an example to all Americans of what women are capable of when put to the test. Let this monument serve as a reminder to us all.” Karen Durham-Aguilera, Executive Director of National Military Cemeteries, followed by saying: “her bravery and legacy as one of the first women to fire an artillery cannon in the defense of our nation, continues to transcend and inspire women in military service even today.”
This story was taken from the New York State 2021 calendar which will be available soon.

Historical Happenings for April 2020

THEY WENT TO SPAIN

by Mike McCormack AOH Historian

Napoleon’s failed invasion of Russia in 1812 was a turning point in the Napoleonic Wars, leading to his abdication and restoration of the Bourbon monarchy. Russia then played a central role at the post-war Vienna Congress of 1814 as a leader of anti-revolutionary forces. This suited the Bourbon kings who once again ruled and allowed the formation of the French Communist Party (PCF). Then, in 1920, after the death of Lenin, his successor Josef Stalin established a new ideology for the Communist International. He called it Marxist-Leninism and redefined the theories of both Lenin and Marx to establish a new meaning to benefit establishing a global Communist world.  It reformed civil law, made marriage secular between social-and-legal equals, facilitated divorce, legalized abortion and voided the political power of the upper and middle class and  privately owned businesses. The Marxist–Leninist world view was totally atheist denying religion in the affairs of human society. The PCF as the French Section of the Communist International adopted the new ideology.  In 1921, they spread it to Spain where the Spanish Communist Party (PCE) was founded. The PCE was legalized by the Second Spanish Republic in April 1931 and  gained much support.  Soon the Republic began introducing the atheistic doctrines of the new Communist ideology. In May 1931, anti-clerical violence broke out all over Madrid and south-west Spain. The government’s slow response disillusioned the population and reinforced their view that the Republic was determined to persecute the Catholic church.  In December a new reformist, liberal democratic constitution was declared and included strong provisions to secularize the previously Catholic country by abolishing Catholic schools and charities; many committed Catholics strongly opposed.   Churches were closed down, unspeakable atrocities were committed against priests and nuns and sacred artifacts were destroyed or stolen.  Then in July 1936, a rebellion was led by General Francisco Franco which marked the beginning of the Spanish Civil War.

Due to  international politics at the time, some saw it as either a class struggle, a religious war, a struggle between dictatorship and  democracy or between fascism and anarchism. In reality it was the result a polarization of Spanish life and politics that had developed since the introduction of communism. On one side, the Nationalists were mostly Roman Catholics, ranking members of the military, middle-class landowners and businessmen. On the other side, the Republic was supported by urban workers, agricultural laborers and members of a newly educated lower class.

The war became notable for the passionate political division it inspired and for the many atrocities that occurred, on both sides. Organized purges occurred in Republican areas to eliminate suspected opposition and revenge killings took place in areas controlled by Franco’s Nationalists.  As the execution of thousands of priests and nuns took place, New York’s Archbishop Cardinal Hayes asked New Yorkers to cry for Spain.  The Church hailed Franco as a deliverer but never sanctioned violence in retribution for the atrocities against his followers.  While Stalin sent volunteers and weapons to the Republicans, many nations officially took a neutral stance.  That neutrality faced serious opposition from sympathizers in the U.S. and other European countries leading to International Brigades.  Thousands from all nations voluntarily went to Spain to aid in the fight on either side.

The new Irish Free State joined an International Committee for Non-Intervention and passed The Spanish Civil War (Non-Intervention) Act in 1937 making it a punishable offence to travel from Ireland to Spain for any who would volunteer to serve in Franco’s cause.  However, while the IRA sent 300 men to support the Republicans, former IRA General Eoin O’Duffy led 700 Irishmen to fight for Franco as a result of the violence being perpetrated against Catholics and clergy.  By the end of the war, more than 6,000 Irish had volunteered in the Christian cause creating unofficial Irish involvement in the Spanish Civil War on both sides.  County Councils passed resolutions of support for Franco and requiem Masses were said for the fallen showing the support of the Irish people for the cause of Spain’s persecuted Catholics though today’s Irish government will not recognize that. Of 500,000 deaths in the War, 200,000 were combat-related: 110,000 Republicans and 90,000 of Franco’s Nationalists, the rest were civilians, but the destruction of a world-famous library’s priceless manuscript collection is lamented by historians to this day.  Another Irish Free State legislation, the Merchant Shipping Act of 1937 restricting Irish shipping to Spain was finally repealed on 27 April 1939 after Franco’s forces defeated the Republicans.  Franco set up a military government under which the PCE was repressed with specific laws banning Communists.  General Franco ruled anti-communist Spain until his death in November 1975 and was always grateful to the Irish who followed O’Duffy and were proud to claim, “We went to Spain!” which had a special meaning in the 1940s; it wasn’t just for a holiday!  The Irish volunteers who were ready to fight Communism in Spain were convinced that the cause of Franco was the cause of their Church and rose to its defense; every Hibernian should be able to relate to that.

Historical Happenings for March 2020

MARCH 17
Mike McCormack, NY State Historian

March 17 is a special day on our calendar because it marks the return to God of our beloved patron saint in the year 461 AD.  It was in that year that a humble missionary passed to his eternal reward.  Today he is revered around the world as Saint Patrick, patron Saint of Ireland, the Archdiocese of New York, the nation of Guiana, and hundreds of towns and parishes across the globe. But there are many other events which occurred on this day throughout history which also make it memorable; for example on March 17:

1014, High King of Ireland, Brian Boru, marched from Kincora, his stronghold at Killaloe, Co Clare, bound for Clontarf, and the battle that would break Viking power in Ireland;

1737, the first St Patrick’s celebration in America took place sponsored by the Charitable Irish Society of Boston;

1763, before the United States was even established, the first St Patrick’s Day celebration was held in New York City;

1766, it is recorded that a Saint Patrick’s Day Dinner in New York featured twenty toasts, the nineteenth of which declared “may the enemies of Ireland be tormented with itching, without the benefit of scratching“;

1776, the British evacuated Boston leaving the city to the American patriot army. General George Washington made the password of the day “Saint Patrick”;

1804, Jim Bridger, American scout, fur trader, and mountain man, was born;

1858, in a Dublin back room, James Stevens and Thomas Luby founded the Irish Republican Brotherhood, which was supported by the Fenian Brotherhood in America;

1871, the first professional baseball league – the National Association of Professional Baseball Players  was founded at Collin’s Saloon on Broadway and 13th Street in New York;

1889, Harry Clarke, the most celebrated stained glass artist of the age, was born in Dublin;

1899, An Claideamh Soluis (The Sword of Light), the official newspaper of the Gaelic League first appeared;

Many past march readings have discussed our Patron Saint, so this month we will focus on another great and glorious character from the pages of Ireland’s history and that is the first one listed above: the Emperor of the Irish: High King Brian Boru.  Brian mac Cennetig was the youngest son born to Cennetig (Kennedy) mac Lorcáin, King of Thomond, and a prince of the Dal Cais Clan.  His birthplace was near Killaloe, Co. Clare at about 940 AD.  At the time, Ireland was besieged by Viking warriors who raided up and down Ireland’s rivers from their strongholds at Dublin, Waterford, Limerick and other seaside settlements.  The tribal structure of the Irish provided no unified opposition  and, as a result, some clans sided with the Norse out of fear, some clans fought the invaders, but only when they were threatened.  Some clans even ignored the threat and continued to fight among themselves over local disputes. 

Brian’s brother, Mahon, became King of Thomond following the death of their father in 959 AD and attempted to cement relations with the Vikings and establish a lasting peace, but his younger brother Brian shared no such desire.  In fact, ever since Brian had learned of the death of his mother in a Viking raid when he was just a boy, he harbored a hatred against the Vikings that guided the rest of his life.  Too young to participate in Clan activities at the time and too old to be treated as a child, he was sent to be educated – most likely at Clonmacnoise.  There he studied Greek and Latin, but the parts he studied hardest were the battle tactics of Greek and Roman generals.  When he returned to the Dal Cais, he urged the study of Viking weapons and battle methods with the idea of waging war on the invaders, but Mahon could not be convinced.  When he was old enough, Brian broke away from his brother and with a band of followers, waged a guerrilla war on Viking settlements.  A skilled tactician, he made use of mounted cavalry, which had never been used by the Irish before.  He won many decisive victories and instilled fear in the enemy as well as the Irish clans who had allied with them.

Brian’s campaign gained popular support and many joined him, including his Brother Mahon, who finally renounced his truce with the Vikings. Their combined forces drove most of the Norse from Southern Ireland, including their leader Ivar.  Eager for revenge, Ivar returned ten years later and captured and killed Mahon. Brian succeeded his brother to the throne of Munster, bringing with him a re-fueled hatred of the Vikings.  Soon after, his forces met and defeated Ivar’s army, killing Ivar, and striking Viking influence in Southern Ireland a serious blow.  Brian returned to his boyhood home at Killaloe and in 1002 built his fortress stronghold.  It was called Kincora, deriving its name from the Irish Ceann Coradh, meaning ‘the head of the weir’.  It was located on a hill overlooking the Shannon – a site now occupied by the Catholic Church.  It guarded a part of the river that was wide enough to hinder an attack, yet shallow enough to drive cattle across.  Brian ruled from Kincora and exacted a tribute from the Munster Clans in return for his protection.  The cattle tribute was driven across that shallow part of the Shannon in the shadow of Kincora.  Tribute in Irish is Boroimhe, and from this, Brian became known as Brian of the Tributes or Brian Boru.  With this value from tribute, he paved new toads across the province, erected churches and rebuilt monasteries and monuments destroyed by raiding Vikings.

In the northern part of Ireland, Malachy the Second, followed Boru’s lead when his forces defeated a Norse army to take Dublin in 980 and Malachy became King of Meath. About the year 987, Brian was undisputed ruler of southern Ireland, yet he had no official title.  In Ossory, in Leinster, and in Connaught, his voice and his arm were felt everywhere. But a divided authority is favorable to invasion, so the Viking power began to loom up to its old proportions. Sitrick ‘silken beard’ one of the ablest of Viking leaders, was then at Dublin, and his constant raids were so formidable, that they produced an alliance between Brian and Malachy.  The alliance lasted three years, and in 997, with reinforcements  from the North, the Vikings were routed by Brian and Malachy in Wicklow, with the loss of 6,000 men and all their chief captains. Immediately after this victory the two kings, according to the Annals, entered into Dublin, and the fort thereof, and there remained seven nights, burnt the town, broke down the fort, and banished Sitrick from thence.

Finding Brian’s influence still on the rise west of the Shannon, Malachy, having vainly endeavored to secure the alliance of the Northern Hy-Nial, submitted to Brian allowing Boru to peacefully take over his lands.  Boru was granted the title “Ard Ri”, meaning “High King”. This made him one of the first – and last – kings to effectively unite Ireland under one monarch. The rivals to Brian Boru’s rule were numerous, however, both among the native Irish and the remaining Norse. In 1013, Maelmordha, King of Leinster, revolted and allied with the Vikings. They summoned reinforcements from Boru’s other Irish rivals and the Viking nations, as far away as Normandy and Iceland.  On March 17, 1014, Brian Boru led his forces out of Kincora headed for Dublin and the pages of Irish history.  The two forces met on Good Friday, April 23, 1014 on the field of Clontarf. Nearly 4,000 Irishmen were killed at the Battle, including Brian’s son Murrough, but the Viking/Leinster forces suffered even heavier losses.  At the end of the battle, what little remained of the Norse forces retreated to their ships. But before all the invaders fled, a fleeing Norse leader, Brodar, came upon Brian’s tent and attacked the Irish leader in prayer thanking God for the victory.  Then in his late seventies or early eighties, Brian was able to wound Brodar who struck Brian a mortal wound.  Brodar was captured by Brians attendants and left tied to a tree by his own intestines.

With Boru gone and his strong influence absent, Ireland soon fell into chaos and anarchy. There would never be another king powerful enough to rule all of Ireland.  In 1016, Connaught men raided and destroyed Kincora. As his descendants feuded among themselves in 1062 for the crown, Aodh O’Connor burned Killaloe and destroyed the rebuilt Kincora.  He claimed it for himself and feasted on the two sacred salmon kept in a pool within the walls of the palace